View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis John Skorupski's book is a comprehensive revaluation of Mill as a philosopher. Buy New Learn more about this copy. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Routledge, Hardcover. Search for all books with this author and title. Customers who bought this item also bought. Stock Image. Published by Other New Paperback Quantity Available: 2. Still, today my confidence is beginning to show some cracks. Recent events in the U. But what he does believe is that there is great value in a vigorous marketplace of ideas, for which thoroughgoing freedom of expression is a prerequisite.
According to Mill, the marketplace of ideas is a powerful engine not only for correcting intellectual errors and discovering truths of all sorts but also for motivating individuals who hold true ethical beliefs to base their lives on these beliefs. And the greater the extent to which people do this, Mill maintains albeit without much argument , the happier that human life will be.
This, for Mill, is the ultimate standard for moral rightness.
It might seem surprising that Mill would believe that society loses anything of value when it censors ideas that genuinely are entirely false, as opposed to ideas that are thought to be entirely false but are in fact at least partly true. Yet he takes there to be several sources of loss in such cases. A second way in which society loses from restricting the expression of false ideas concerns how ethical beliefs are held. If such Christians are animated by anything in their religion through the rest of the week, he maintains, it is only by those parts of it that are distinctive to their particular sect and that they might need to defend against other sectarians.
After all, if false moral doctrines are extinguished, then no one will need to worry about debating their adherents. It therefore appears that freedom of expression can at most yield only one of these benefits with respect to any particular false moral doctrine, not both. It can be true both that the long-run tendency of protecting the marketplace of ideas is to extinguish false views and that until a particular false ethical view is extinguished the fact that some people hold it will give those who hold the true view, or at least a truer one, a livelier appreciation of their own commitments.
For instance, teachers may need to learn to defend certain false doctrines forcefully, to approximate for students the experience of debating someone who holds them.
Mill, John Stuart (–73) - Ryan - - Major Reference Works - Wiley Online Library
Suppose that some false moral doctrine was introduced into a society a considerable time ago. Suppose further that in this society it has always been possible to discuss and debate this doctrine freely. Parliamentary evidence, in written form and as a transcription of oral answers republished in pamphlet form , supplies two further items. And two more not published by Mill are presented from manuscript. The wide gap in approach and style between that essay and the manuscript we have entitled.
This essay, with her companion piece printed here as Appendix A , examines in a highly personal tone questions that had the greatest practical import for their relations. Edition: current; Page: [ lix ] The watermarks, and , 6 led Professor Hayek to postulate a date of , which presents no obvious difficulty when placed in the context of our general knowledge of their developing relations. Again, the essays may well have preceded the six-month trial separation between Harriet and John Taylor beginning in September, , when she went to Paris, to be joined there by Mill in October.
The exchange of statements between them at that time would, in fact, help explain the crisis in their affairs that led to the flight to Paris in September, A devoted friend of John and Sarah Austin at this time, Mill had read law while staying with them at Norwich a decade earlier, attended in the lectures he is here reviewing, advised John Austin through Sarah about the lectures in , was now addressing Mrs.
It presents no textual problems. While there is another gap of nine years between that review and the next essay. The attack on Carlyle was Edition: current; Page: [ lxii ] reprinted in the Daily News, with three substantive and several accidental variants; the substantive changes are given here in notes although there is no reason to think the reprinted text was supervised by Mill. The last of these, the pamphlet, prompted by the introduction in Parliament on 10 March, , of a bill to improve the protection of women and children from assaults, was jointly written by the two Mills.
He had withheld public comment on the American war because of the Trent incident, feelings over it having abated, he wrote the essay quickly in mid-January while in Avignon. I shall always feel grateful to my daughter that her urgency prevailed on me to write it when I did: for we were then on the point of setting out for a journey of some months in Greece and Turkey, and but for her, I should have deferred writing till our return.
Written Edition: current; Page: [ lxiv ] and published when it was, the paper helped to encourage those Liberals who had felt overborne by the tide of illiberal opinion, and to form in favour of the good cause a nucleus of opinion which increased gradually, and after the success of the North began to seem probable, rapidly. England is paying the penalty, in many uncomfortable ways, of the durable resentment which her ruling classes stirred up in the United States by their ostentatious wishes for the ruin of America as a nation; they have reason to be thankful that a few, if only a few known writers and speakers, standing firmly by the Americans in the time of their greatest difficulty, effected a partial diversion of these bitter feelings, and made Great Britain not altogether odious to the Americans.
The essay was offprinted in a textually unchanged version, 32 and published as a pamphlet in Boston Little, Brown, that went through two printings within a year. There is no indication that these versions were supervised by Mill, so our copy-text is the original and only British version; but substantive variants in the American versions, all minor, are given in notes. That is, Volumes II and III of the Lectures on Jurisprudence first appeared, and that title was first used, in , so the edition of was really the 2nd, not the 3rd, edition of the Lectures, though counting the and issues as one edition it was the 3rd of the Province though that title was not separately used in Mill comes very close to the views expressed by his wife and himself about their role as guides for the future.
Past and Present
Like other articles of this period, the review of Austin was little revised for republication. It was offprinted without alterations, and only five minor changes including two reflecting the difference in provenance and two corrections of misprints were made for Dissertations and Discussions. The next few years brought Mill to the height of his public acclaim as new books and editions poured forth and his election as M. One inevitable result was a great increase in requests for opinions and appearances, his occasional compliance with which is witnessed in the next two items in this volume, his evidence to the Taunton Schools Inquiry Commission and his Inaugural Address at St.
Andrews Anticipating a request for Edition: current; Page: [ lxvii ] his opinion on educational endowments, he wrote on 21 May, , to his lifelong friend Edwin Chadwick for information and advice; Chadwick, ever willing, complied, and some time in the next two months, busy as Mill was with political affairs the great Hyde Park Reform agitation occurred in July, when he also assumed the Chair of the Jamaica Committee , he sent a draft of his paper to Chadwick for comment.
The students, in electing Mill Rector, were obviously partaking in a widespread expectation of sagacity from him, and seeking to honour him, rather than to have him serve them in very material ways.
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In this Discourse I gave expression to many thoughts and opinions which had been accumulating in me through life respecting the various studies which belong to a liberal education, their uses and influences, and the mode in which they should be pursued to render those influences most beneficial. The position I took up, vindicating the high educational value alike of the old classic and the new scientific studies, on even stronger grounds than are urged by most of their advocates and insisting that it is only the stupid inefficiency of the usual teaching which makes those studies be regarded as competitors instead of allies, was, I think, calculated, not only to aid and stimulate the improvement which has happily commenced in the national institutions for higher education, but to diffuse juster ideas than we often find even in highly educated men on the conditions of the highest mental cultivation.
This account suggests both the time and the care he spent in preparing the Address probably in Avignon, where he spent much of the inter-parliamentary recess , Edition: current; Page: [ lxviii ] however, he gave little time to St. Andrews, arriving only on 31 January, and leaving again on 2 February for two speaking engagements in Manchester before returning to London on the 5th.
This flurry of activity outside London was quite untypical; Mill delivered public speeches rarely, even during his parliamentary career, and almost always in London. He undoubtedly had a printed version in mind from the beginning, though perhaps he thought a three-hour speech was fitting to the occasion. The full transcription of his speech in those capacious repositories, the contemporary newspapers, as well as the quick publication in book form, gave publicity to his ideas, and the response to them was generally favourable, though, as Stefan Collini points out liii-liv above , there was criticism of his support for classical studies.
Mill so determinedly and correctly asserted that his attitude to sexual equality preceded her teaching of him that his main statement deserves quotation in full:. The steps in my mental growth for which I was indebted to her were far from being those which a person wholly uninformed on the subject would probably suspect. It might be supposed, for instance, that my strong convictions on the complete equality in all legal, political, social and domestic relations, which ought to exist between men and women, may have been adopted or learnt from her.
This was so far from being the fact, that those convictions were among the earliest results of the application of my mind to political subjects, and the strength with which I held them was, as I believe, more than anything else, the originating cause of the interest she felt in me. What is true is, that until I knew her, the opinion was, in my mind, little more than an abstract principle.
I saw no more reason why women should be held in legal subjection to other people, than why men should. I was certain that their interests required fully as much protection as those of men, and were quite as little likely to obtain it without an equal voice in making the laws by which they are to be bound. But for her rare knowledge of human nature and comprehension of moral and social influences, though I should doubtless have held my present opinions I should have Edition: current; Page: [ lxix ] had a very insufficient perception of the mode in which the consequences of the inferior position of women intertwine themselves with all the evils of existing society and with all the difficulties of human improvement.
I am indeed painfully conscious how much of her best thoughts on the subject I have failed to reproduce, and how greatly that little treatise falls short of what would have been given to the world if she had put on paper her entire mind on this question, or had lived to revise and improve, as she certainly would have done, my imperfect statement of the case. I only wish the better thing we have promised to write were already written instead of being in prospect.
The intention was to keep this among other unpublished papers, improving it from time to time if I was able, and to publish it at the time when it should seem likely to be most useful. But in what was of my own composition, all that is Edition: current; Page: [ lxx ] most striking and profound belongs to my wife; coming from the fund of thought which had been made common to us both, by our innumerable conversations and discussions on a topic which filled so large a place in our minds.
Three British editions, each of copies, appeared in May, June, and October, , and two in the United States in that year; and it was translated almost immediately into French, Danish, German, Italian, Polish, and Russian. The comparison is of course skewed because both his public position and his circle of acquaintance were greater in than when his earlier works appeared. As well as enthusiastic supporters, and such vituperative opponents as J.
Without entering into an argument with him on his equality view, I expressed my doubts as to the expediency of putting this more strongly than people generally would be willing to accept, inasmuch as the equality of rights did not presuppose absolute equality of faculties. He replied with much warmth, contending that the day of a temporizing policy was past, that it was necessary to show, not simply that the removal of restrictions would leave things as they are, but that many women are really capable of taking advantage of the higher openings.
And further, he urged, it was necessary to stimulate the aspirations of women themselves, so as to obtain proofs from experience as to what they could do. They were called forth by a cry, that arose at that time in a portion of the English press, for plunging England into a war with Russia. They were the first protest that appeared in any well known name against such a war, they called forth others and helped to calm down the warlike excitement that was being aroused.
2. Mill’s Naturalism
He must have had little time to consider the details of the administration and operation of the Contagious Diseases Acts, of which he certainly had no personal knowledge, and so his answers, firm and persistent, draw, as Stefan Collini argues, on principle and reason, not facts and induction.
It appears, however, that the pamphlet was printed, if not verbatim, at least on the basis of the Blue Book, and not from some version amended by Mill or another. We therefore have adopted it as copy-text, but have given the variant readings from Parliamentary Papers in notes, 59 and accepted, where sense and consistency demanded, some accidentals from the earlier version. The resisted urge to do more emendation was very strong, as will be realized by anyone who has seen supposedly verbatim reports of her or his lectures or conversation. In the first group fall Appendices A, B, and C.
One related fragment is on paper watermarked ; the other, closer to our text, is like it on paper watermarked The essay is of interest biographically, and also as tending to support, if not confirm, his assertion about her role in giving him ideas that he developed. The most obvious one here is in the concluding sentence.
Appendix B is made up of five items that we attribute jointly to Harriet Taylor and J. The first and most extensive is on paper of Also, after the first word on No. But the essay was not finished before 3 March, , when Mill offered to send it to Hickson within a week for the April number of the Westminster.
That word is enough to vulgarize a whole review. I am surprised to see by the revise of my article that you have made two verbal alterations.