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There is a need, however, to better understand the drivers of our findings.

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Future research should more deeply explore the beliefs, strategies, and mechanisms by which PPA administrators approach and engage private development-based conservation because each ownership type will likely engage with issues of poverty and biodiversity in very different ways Adams et al. Variance among community responses may be explained by historical differences between dependence on one industry near HH and the lived indigenous experience near RCV.

At the time of our study, more formally educated and higher income earning HH communities were transitioning from extreme dependence on unsustainable timber extraction into a condition of extreme dependence on a privately established nature tourism industry. In Neltume and Puerto Fuy, intense timber extraction was, and now nature tourism is, essentially the only subsistence option, prolonging a cycle of economic dependence and social domination Mowforth and Munt On the other hand, RCV community sentiments suggest an autonomous disposition and subsistence livelihood diversification strategy that dates back to precolonization.

These ends are likely a product of centuries of territorial, social, and political conflict, impoverished conditions including low income and minimal formal education , detachment from external markets, and use of land and sea to support material and symbolic aspects of life Meza ; I.

Ponce and C. The heterogeneity of local communities in this study complicates debates about private development-based conservation. Variability in responses within communities may be attributed to 1 differences between local expectations of PPA-people relations grounded in competing collective and individual visions of rural development and worldviews Pratt , and 2 aggregating communities with different local realities for our analysis. Communities and local dynamics are neither homogenous nor static, and decision makers should approach conservation and development policy with these notions in mind Yung et al.

Our results do suggest, though, that PPA administrations may determine how heterogeneity has an impact on their goals and how they can bridge divisions within communities. Our results illustrate that pooling resources through the encouragement and development of community cooperatives and refining rather than completely supplanting traditional livelihood practices with sustainable techniques are useful approaches. We anticipate each will be interested in exploring why indigenous community cultural truths matched with those of the conservation agent group better than the nonindigenous Chilean group.

Prior research on this topic tends to stress cultural differences between rural resident perspectives, particularly indigenous ones, and conservation-development actors Colchester , Peters , Meza , Coria and Calfacura With much attention given to fostering local participation in development-based conservation projects, future scholarly inquiries should consider identifying under what conditions and contexts local perspectives agree and diverge with PPA conservation agents because assumptions about ideological differences with indigenous groups may be overstated.

Likewise, some conservation agents might need to consider equally distributing the attention they give to local communities, avoiding favoring one over another without sound logic of why they are doing so. We posit this assessment would also highlight areas of potential conflict in which additional dialogue, improved communication, and modified management strategies to benefit both public relations and the resource being protected. Our results also suggest future efforts that employ cultural consensus analysis to assess and compare hegemonic ideology with local perspectives should consider iterative scale development and random sampling.

Specifically, higher eigenratios and competency scores for conservation agents i. We also note that purposive sampling limits inference to focal groups who are engaged with PPA administrations Handwerker and Wozniak Future cultural consensus analysis studies employing large randomized samples may be representative of the population as a whole, but still allow for meaningful statistics on smaller subgroups. This development would obviously create logistical challenges, e. We thank all respondents for participating in this study and the entire research team for their hard work and dedication to this project.

Adams, W. Aveling, D. Brockington, B. Dickson, J. Elliott, J. Hutton, D. Roe, B.

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